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Contatta Romolini Immobiliare

BREATHTAKING LANDSCAPES AND HISTORY

Campania is located in the south of the Italian peninsula and it’s the third region of Italy for number of citizens (6 millions). Mainly hilly, the region is comprised between the Apennines and the Tyrrhenian Sea and borders with Lazio, Molise, Puglia and Basilicata.

One of Calabria’s symbols is Mount Vesuvius, a currently active volcano (1,281 m) located right over Naples. Main river of the region is the Volturno, however rivers in the region are often dry because of the heat, and lake are uncommon as well.

The region is however most known for its beautiful coasts, such as the Amalfi Coast, the Sorrento Peninsula and the Cilento Peninsula. The islands are also a natural wonder: Ischia, Capri, Procida, Nisida and Vivara are the most beautiful. Campania is recognizable by the rich Mediterranean woodland surrounding the many historic towns of the region. Finally, Campania boasts several protected natural areas and archaeological sites such as Pompei, Ercolano and Paestum.

Vegetation is luxurious and varied, with holm oaks, oleasters, carob trees, lentisks, Scotch brooms, heathers, myrtles and oleanders. Particularly important are vineyards, olive groves and citrus groves, while on the hills (mainly those with volcanic ashes) chestnuts and oaks grow strong.

Over the centuries, Campania was dominated by Longobards, Byzantines and Arabs and that’s why the region boasts such an incredibly varied architectural richness.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Campania are the historic centre of Naples, the Reggia di Caserta with its wonderful park (the Acquedotto Carolino and San Leucio), the archaeological sites of Pompei, Ercolano and Oplonti, the Amalfi Coast, the National Park of Cilento, the Vallo di Diano with the archaeological sites of Paestum, Velia and the Certosa di Padula and finally the monumental Langobardic complex of Santa Sofia di Benevento.

Much interesting are also the medieval hamlets of Gesualdo, Nusco, Sant’Agata de’ Goti and Morcone, the Antiquarium in Boscoreale, the digging sites in Castellammare di Stabia, the islands of Ischia, Capri and Procida, the Piscina Mirabilis and the Casina Vanvitelliana in Bacoli, the Flavian Amphitheater and the solfatare in Pozzuoli, the archaeological findings in Cuma, the Bronze age village in Nola and the Capuan amphitheater.

Campania is among the greates Italian producers of vegetables and fruits, even though agriculure is limited to the coasts. Fishing, one very important for the economy, has been relegated to a secondary role in the last years, while breeding has grown as of lately. In Southern Italy, Campania is the region with the most industries (aluminum factories, shipyards in Castellammare di Stabia, car factories in Pomigliano d’Arco, petrol refineries, chemical and pharmaceutical plants, and the industrial complex of Bagnoli) and is mostly appreciated for its manufacture business.

Through Romolini Immobiliare – Christie’s International Real Estate it is possible to rent luxury villas, period mansions, sea view villas with garden, sea view exclusive apartments, palaces and villas with access to the sea.

 

A BIT OF HISTORY

As for the rest of the peninsula, Campania was already inhabited 70,000 years ago by a people of Samnites origin, even if the most interesting traces date back to the Bronze age (2000 – 1750 b.C.).

With the advent of Greeks during the 8th century b.C., Campania saw the rise of multiple towns, several of which still visible nowadays (Cuma, Ercolano, Pompei, Parthenope, Paestum and Eboli are the most renowned). Greeks, however, never moved towards the hinterland which was thus colonized by Etruscans with the institution of a Dodecapolis with Capua as capital.

Greek colonies quickly fell against Lucanians, a people which fiercely opposed the Roman conquest up until the 3rd century b.C. when the military strength of Rome was able to overcome any resistance in the peninsula.

The Roman rule brought prosperity to the region and several of its cities grew to become true megalopolis of the time. With the rise of the Empire, the region was provided with special privileges which included tax exemption for agricultural land (395, a vain attempt to stop an already unstoppable crisis). Barbaric invasions dealt the killing blow on the region, especially after the sack of Rome by the Visigoths led by Alaric I, and the final fall of Rome in 476 marked the starting of a several-decades-long decay for the region.

The Byzantine invasion of Italy during the Gothic War (535 – 553) brought Campania back into the hand of the Empire, which was however unable to keep control of Italian territories during the Langobardic invasion. The Duchy of Benevento became the capital of Langobardia Minor and in a few years it expanded its territory into Abruzzo, Molise and Apulia.

The political fragmentation of the Langobardic Kingdom made Campania an easy prey for the Normans after the long war with Charlemagne and an instability period which had lasted at least 200 years. In 1137 Naples was definitely conquered by Normans (with Sicily) and in 1302, under the Anjou rule, the Kingdom of Naples was instituted. The economical and cultural flourishing went on under the Aragonese domination after the Anjou.

In 1503 Spain took possession of the Kingdom of Naples and managed to stop every single French attempt to take it back and every single riot which arose.

In 1707 Austrians entered in Naples taking advantage of the War of the Spanish succession and deposed the viceroy Zúñiga while establishing a new government. Austrian domination lasted almost thirty years but in 1734 the kingdom fell back into Spanish hands at the end of the war of the Polish succession. That’s when the Bourbon of Naples rose to power to remain until the Risorgimento, with the only interruption of the French domination under Napoleon. In 1816 the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Sicily were officially reunited under the name of Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

The revolutionary unrest hit the Kingdom of Naples but the repression carried out by the Bourbon was enough to prevent a true revolution. The landing in Sicily of the Mille led by Garibaldi and their quick march northbound hindered the Spanish army and the Bourbons were forced to leave the Kingdom to the Italian general. The referendum of 1860 decreed the annexation of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies to the newborn Kingdom of Italy.

The region then followed the events of Italy through the wars and the following economic boom.

 

THE PEARLS OF CAMPANIA

Campania is a fascinating region for its wonderful landscapes, archaeological sites, its cultural tradition, its beautiful islands, the most famous coast in the world and the wonderful cities.

- Naples is the main city of the region and third in Italy for number of citizens (after Rome and Milan). It is located on the gulf which bears its name, between the Vesuvius and the Campi Flegrei, and is one of the most beautiful cities of Italy, to the point that its historic centre has been listed among the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. The main church is the Cattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta, built at the end of the 13th century by order of Charles of Anjou and linked to the Miracle of San Gennaro. Among the most relevant churches we must recall the Basilica di San Francesco di Paola, the Chiesa di Santa Chiara, the Chiesa del Gesù Nuovo, the Chiesa di San Domenico Maggiore and the Chiesa dei Girolamini. Naples is full of palaces and villas, all full of history and unique in their architectural style, such as the Royal Palace. The most famous road in town is the Spaccanapoli, going through the Spanish Quarters to Forcella dividing Naples in half. This road is also historically important: it is the evolution of the first decumanus (the closest to the sea) traced by the Romans. Other beautiful roads are Via Toledo, Via Caracciolo, Via San Gregorio Armeno, Via Chiaia and Via Duomo. The main square is Piazza del Plebiscito, which is also the symbol of the city. Other squares include Piazza Trieste e Trento, Piazza del Gesù (with the beautiful obelisk), Piazza Dante, Piazza Bellini and Piazza San Domenico Maggiore. The original walls were interrupted by walls and doors such as Medina, San Gennaro, Capuana and Alba. Much interesting is also the underground labyrinth of the city, consisting of cisterns, wells and catacombs. Naples also hosts three great museums: the Museo Archeologico Nazionale, the Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte and San Martino.

- Avellino is located in Irpinia and is a city full of churches and monuments. Among the most important churches we must recall the Duomo di Santa Maria Assunta and San Modestino. The Cathedral is built approximately on the location where a pre-existing Chiesa di Santa Maria. Worth mentioning are also the Chiesa di Santa Maria dei Sette Dolori and the Chiesa di Sant’Anna. Symbol of Avellino is the bell tower, 36 m tall and built by order of Francesco Marino Caracciolo. Other landmarks worth visiting are the Carcere Borbonico, the Casino del Principe, Bellerophon’s Fountain, Palazzo dei Concili, Palazzo della Dogana, Palazzo Caracciolo and the Galleria Nazionale dei Selachoidei. Irpinia’s recent history was marked by the horrific earthquake of 1980.

- Caserta is located in the plain at the foot of Mount Tifata and is one of the most fertile regions of Campania. Because of this, its economy is mainly based on agriculture (corn, wheat, potatoes and lupines) and breeding. Caserta is mostly known for the impressive Bourbon Palace (the Reggia), which is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Reggia was built under Carlo di Borbone: works started in 1752 and were officially closed in 1774. The palace is laid out onto five floors, equipped with four courtyards, and covers a surface of 44,000 sqm (473,440 sqft for a total of 1,200 rooms, 34 monumental staircases and 1,970 windows). On the inside, the palace boasts a wonderful atrium, frescoes painted by the most appreciated artists of the time, a private chapel, a huge library and even a theater. As beautiful as the palace is the impressive park: 120 hectares, enriched by lakes and waterfalls (for which an entire aqueduct was purposely built). Among the beauties worth seeing in Caserta are the Duomo di Casertavecchia, Saint Anna’s Shrine, the Chiesa di San Sebastiano, the Triumph Arch and Palazzo Vecchio. Piazza Carlo III (the main square) is one of the biggest in Europe.

- Salerno is located on the homonym gulf between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Apennines. The peculiar geographic shapes of the outskirts blesses the city with a pleasant climate. The historic centre of Salerno, crossed by the Via dei Mercanti, is full of churches, monuments and masterworks. The most important religious building is Salerno’s Cathedral with its Arab-Norman bell tower (52 m tall). Other interesting religious landmarks are the Chiesa di Santa Maria de Lama, the Chiesa del Santissimo Crocifisso and the Chiesa di San Pietro a Corte. Among the palaces one must absolutely visit Palazzo San Massimo, Palazzo Fruscione and Palazzo Pinto. Very interesting are the Langobardic Aqueduct built in the 9th century, the archaeological site of San Pietro a Corte and the numerous parks scattered throughout the city.

- Benevento is located in the Apennine hinterland and boasts several centuries of history and art. The town is known as the “città delle streghe” (literally town of witches, but the name is based on the ambiguity between the term strega which means “witch” but is in this case the name given to an appreciated liqueur). The history of Benevento can be easily simplified into three periods: Roman, Langobardic and Papal. The town also hosts Saint Sophia’s Church, one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Other landmarks include Trajan’s Arch, the Roman theater, the Ponte Leproso, the Langobardic walls, Villa dei Papi and the Hortus Conclusus (the garden of the former convent).

- Capri is the most beautiful and famous isle of the Gulf of Naples and is one of the most renowned touristic destinations in the world, standing out with its lush vegetations, its unique sea and breathtaking views. The island is rich in history and has been an inspiration for many artists, poets and writers. The main towns of Capri are Capri, Anacapri and Marina. The numerous caves, hidden under the cliffs, were used in Roman times as Nymphaea for the villas built here by noble aristocrats. The most famous cave is without a doubt the Grotta Azzurra, with its unique-blue waters.

The Amalfi Coast is located in the lower section of the Sorrento Peninsula, over the Gulf of Salerno, and includes sixteen municipalities: Amalfi, Atrani, Cava de’ Tirreni, Cetara, Conca dei Marini, Furore, Maiori, Minori, Positano, Praiano, Raito, Ravello, Sant’Egidio del Monte Albino, Scala, Tramonti and Vietri sul Mare. The coast is a balcony, starting from the mountains and projecting itself over the sea. The incredible beauty of this area pushed UNESCO to list the Amalfi Coast as one of the World Heritage Sites.

- Amalfi is a town founded in the 4th century b.C. and was one of the four Maritime Republics. It held for a long time the monopoly of commerce over the Mediterranean Sea, exporting Italian products (wood, iron, weapons, wine and fruits) towards the markets of the East and buying spices, perfumes, pearls, jewels, clothes and carpets to bring back into the West. The city gave its name to the whole coast. The organization of the town is clearly of Arab origin and is recognizable by the houses nestled on the cliff and connected by a maze of alleys and staircases. The town was declared UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997. An evident example of Arab influences is the Cathedral, which was however rebuilt during the XVIII century.

- Positano is one of the most beautiful towns of the Amalfi Coast and has been, even since the Roman domination, a renowned holiday destinations thanks to the beautiful landscape and the pleasant climate. The city is recognizable for its highly vertical organization thanks to the terraces carved into the stone and hosting the historic palaces connected by a network of alleys and staircases. Among the landmarks, a few are worth mentioning: the Saracene Towers, the Chiesa di Santa Maria Teresa dell’Assunta, the bell tower and the Chiesa del Rosario.

- Ravello is often seen as the natural terrace of the Costiera, since it is built on a rocky promontory separating two rivers (Dragone and Reginna) at the southern ridge of the Monti Lattari. Ravello is characterized by beautiful alleys with lemon trees, cypresses and trees typical of the Mediterranean woodland. Among the monuments, several are worth remembering: the cathedral, the Cappella di San Pantaleone, the Museo del Corallo, the typical villas (among which Villa Rufolo and Villa Cimbrone), the beautiful gardens, the Chiesa dell’Annunziata, the Chiesa di San Francesco and the Convento di Santa Chiara. An important event is the Ravello Festival, one of the most important musical events of Italy.

- Praiano is one of the pearls of the Amalfi Coast, once a fishers’ village it is now a renowned holiday destination. Among the most beautiful monuments we must recall the Chiesa di San Luca Evangelista, the Chiesa di San Giovanni Battista, Piazza San Gennaro and Marina di Praia, a peculiar beach enclosed between two huge rocky cliffs.

Among the most characteristic places of the Amalfi Coast, the Grotta dello Smeraldo is worth a special mention for its unrivaled beauty.

The Sorrento Peninsula is another touristic destination and is recognizable by the presence of contrasting landscapes: rocky cliff, sandy beaches, mountains, hills and plains. Human action shaped the region to create the famous terraces which allow cultivating oranges, lemons, vines and olive trees. Another selling point of the Sorrento Peninsula is its exceptional gastronomy which includes the famous Limoncello and the mozzarella di Agerola. Municipalities of the Sorrento Peninsula are: Vico Equense, Meta di Sorrento, Piano di Sorrento, Sant’Agnello, Sorrento and Massa Lubrense. A small town (part of Massa Lubrense) worth mentioning is Sant’Agata sui due Golfi, located on the Monti Lattari, which is the connection point between the Sorrento coast and the Amalfi Coast.

- Sorrento is a natural paradise offering one of the most beautiful views in the region. The city is built on a rocky spur and houses are built among the lush vegetation. The city center is still surrounded by the old walls and is recognizable for the alleys and staircases. Landmarks worth visiting are the Sedile Dominova (an ancient loggia one reserved for the noblesse), the Museo Correale, the main cathedral and the Villa Colunale Salve d’Esposito.

The Cilento is a mountainous region in the Southern Campania, ranging from the Gulf of Salerno to the Gulf of Policastro and is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with its forests, hilltop hamlets, valleys and incredible landscapes. Among the most appreciated locations are Paestum, Teggiano, Vallo della Lucania, Capaccio, Palinuro, Marina di Camerota, Agropoli, Acciaroli and Casal Verino. The Castecivita Caves and the Persano Oasis are also worth visiting.

- Paestum is located in the province of Salerno and is listed in the UNESCO World Heritage Site list. It was originally founded by the Greeks with the name Poseidonia and is preserved in wonderful shape. The most beautiful attractions are the temples built in honor of Hera, Neptune and Ceres.

- Vesuvius (whose full name in Italian is Somma-Vesuvio) is a stratovolcano reaching 1,281 m in altitude. The cone formed approximately 25,000 years ago and was much bigger in the beginning. Mount Vesuvius is mostly known for the eruption occurred in 79 a.D. which destroyed Pompei and has not erupted since 1944.

- Pompei is known worldwide for its archaeological findings. The digging started in 1748 by order of Charles III Bourbon and brought back from the ashes the entire Roman city, buried after Mount Vesuvius’ eruption in 79 a.D. The city is extremely well preserved and several buildings are almost intact: the Villa of Mysteries, the Forum, the ancient market, the Castellum Aquae (a huge hydraulic structure bringing water throughout the city), several theaters and the necropolis.

- Ercolano is another archaeological sites with an almost intact roman cities brought back to the light (very much like Pompei) and is listed among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

- Ischia is located in the northern section of the Gulf of Naples (part of the Isole Flegree) and is the third island of Italy for population (after Sicily and Sardinia). Landmarks worth visiting are the Aragonese Castle, Guevara’s Tower, the Museo Archeologico di Lacco Ameno and Ravino Gardens. The main attraction on the island is, however, the crystal-clear sea and the unrivaled landscape.

By contacting Romolini Immobiliare – Christie’s International Real Estate it is possible to rent luxury villas, period mansions, sea view villas with garden, exclusive apartments, palaces and villas with access to the sea in the most beautiful locations of Campania, Amalfi Coast and Sorrento Peninsula.

 

CAMPANIAN WINES

Campania is a region with an old wine tradition, and has been recently acknowledged as an excellent wine producer (for both white and red wines). Almost 100,000 acres of land are covered in vineyards, thanks to the ample hilly landscape. Many vineyards are located at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, on the islands of Ischia and Capri, in the Sorrento Peninsula and in the provinces of Caserta and Benevento.

- Piedirosso is a red grape whose name means “red foots” and is related to the stalks growing red with maturation. It was rarely used alone in the past, but its popularity in pure wines increased in the last decades.

- Falanghina is Greek-born white grape. Its late maturation allows produced to alter the flavor of wines, which explains why the various wines one finds in stores are so different one from the other.

- Coda di Volpe owns its name to the shape of the grape (it means literally fox’s tail).

- Fiano is a white grape and gets its name from the Latin Vitis Apiana (it was noted that this grape attracted bees, api in Italian, thanks to its sweetness). The world apiana changed into aphiana > afiana during the Middle Ages.

- Greco is a white grape, mainly harvested in the area of Avellino.

- Aglianico is a red grape, derivative of Ellenico which testifies its Greek origin.

Particular mention is for the Asprinio, a white grape introduced in Campania by the Etruscans and recognizable by a pronounced acidity (from which its name, aspro means ‘sour’ in Italian).

Red vines of Campania are: Aglianico, Aglianicone, Bombino, Bovino, Cacchione, Casavecchia, Cesanese, Ciliegiolo, Ellenica, Ellenico, Forestiera, Furastiera, Glianica, Glianico, Greco Nero, Grecu nieddu, Iuvarella, Janculella, Maglioccone, Malvasia, Mantonico, Morettone, Olivella nera, Ottenese, Pallagrello nero, Palombina, Piede di colombo, Piede di palumbo, Piedirosso, Pinot, Pinot blanc, Pinot grigio, Pinot nero, Riesling, Sangiovese, Sciascinoso, Silvaner, Verdina.

White wines of Campania are: Asprinio, Bellone, Biancolella, Bombino Bianco, Catalanesca, Coda di Volpe, Falanghina, Fiano, Forastera, Ginestra, Greco, Greco di Tufo, Guarnaccia, Montonico, Pallagrello bianco, Pepella, Procanico, S. Lunardo, Trebbiano, Veltliner, Verdeca.

Campania is the homeland of sixteen DOC wines (Ischia, Capri, Vesuvio, Cilento, Falerno del Massico, Castel San Lorenzo, Aversa, Penisola Sorrentina, Campi Flegrei, Costa d’Amalfi, Galluccio, Sannio, Irpinia, Casavecchia di Pontelatone, Falanghina del Sannio, Lacryma Christi), four DOCG wines (Taurasi, Greco di Tufo, Fiano di Avellino, Aglianico del Taburno) and ten IGT wines (Colli di Salerno, Dugenta, Epomeo, Paestum, Pompeiano, Roccamonfina, Beneventano, Terre del Volturno, Campania, Catalanesca del Monte Somma).

Among the liqueurs, the best known is the Limoncello (produced with the excellent lemons grown in the area), but others are very good too, among which the Fragolino (strawberries), the Nanassino (Barbary fig), the Concerto (herbs and spices), the Nocillo (nuts) and Strega (approx. 70 different herbs).

Through Romolini Immobiliare – Christie’s International Real Estate it is possible to rent seafront villas, historic palaces and exclusive penthouses in the most beautiful locations of Campania.

 

THE LAND OF FOOD AND PIZZA

The main dish of Campania is without a doubt pizza. It has become a worldwide renowned food and was even given the certification of UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. The most famous pizza-maker is the one who in 1889 decided to offer the Queen Margherita (Savoia) a pizza garnished with tomato (red), mozzarella (white) and basil (green) to honor the recently born Kingdom of Italy and its flag.

Another excellence of Campania is cheese production, which led to the rise of the famous mozzarella di bufala DOP produced in the areas of Mondragone, Battipaglia, Capua and Eboli.

 

CELEBRATIONS IN CAMPANIA

Campania is a region particularly attached to its traditions and many events are held to celebrate history, religion and folklore:

The Festa di San Gennaro is celebrated on September 19 in Naples, commemorating the protector of the City. The whole celebration revolves around the liquefaction of what is said to be San Gennaro’s blood.

The Festa d’o’ cippo di Sant’Antonio is celebrated on January 17 in Naples to commemorate Saint Anthony, protectors of the animals. Naples is also known for its nativity scenes, the carnival, theater and the musical tradition;

The Festa dei quattro altari is held in Torre del Greco from 27 to 29 June and was first instituted in the 16th century by the Spanish rulers;

The Festa dell’Immacolata is held on December 8 in Torre del Greco as a celebration for the so-called divine intervention of the Virgin against eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1861;

The Festa di San Michele is held twice a year, May 8 and September 29, in Sala Consilina.

The Regata storica delle Repubbliche Marinare is held in June in Amalfi and each year it hosts the sailors from the ancient Maritime Republics: each city shows up with at least 80 participants racing with ships over 2,000 m.

With Romolini Immobiliare – Christie’s International Real Estate it is possible to rent exclusive villas, period mansions, sea view villas with gardens, prestigious sea view apartments, palaces, villas with access to the sea in the beautiful Campania and in the Amalfi Coast.


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